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Careers Pathways in Agricultural Sector

1.Crop Production or Agronomy:

It deals with the application of plant and soil science for various annual and perennial crops that can be grown by farmers. The annual crops include cereals, legumes, garden peas; and perennial crops such as coffee, tea, and sugar cane, etc. It focuses in three areas namely:

i. Crop physiology is the study of the functions and responses of plants grown in different environments.

ii. Plant pathology deals with the causes of diseases, plant instabilities, and the treatment of plant diseases.

iii. Crop/Plant protection: It focuses on preventing damage from diseases, pests, and weeds. i.e. integrated pest and disease management

2. Horticulture:

It deals with the cultivation of fruits, vegetables, and ornamental crops. The six (6) areas in horticulture include:

i. Pomology: It deals with the cultivation of fruit plants

ii. Olericulture: It is the cultivation of vegetables such as French beans, cabbage, and tomatoes.

iii. Floriculture: It is the cultivation of flowers such as Jasmine, rose, and tulips.

iv. Arboriculture: it deals with the assortment, planting, maintenance, and removal of trees, shrubs and other woody plants.

v. Landscaping: Deals with the production, presentation, and maintenance of landscapes, flowers, and other plants.

vi.Viticulture: the cultivation and retailing of grapes.

3.Plant breeding and genetics

It deals with modifying the genetic structure and traits of plants to achieve desired traits.

4. Seed science

It deals with the structure of seeds and growth habitats from fertilization, egg development, and the growth of a new plant. The science of seeds is closely related to biochemistry, botany, genetics, and other biosciences.

5. Soil science

It is the study of soil properties in relation to soil use and management, classification, formation and mapping of chemical, physical, biological and fertility properties of

6. Animal science :

Animal production and health management, health, feed and nutrition, animal breeding, Animal welfare management

i. Nomadic pastoralism: This is the rearing of cattle herds while moving from one area in search of pastures and clean water.

ii. Animal Husbandry: It is the care, rearing, and use of animals such as cattle, camels, goats, sheep and horses.

iii. Dairy farming: Keeping of animals for milk

iv. Beef farming: Keeping and managing cattle for meat

v. Poultry farming: It is the rearing of poultry birds such as chicken, goose, turkey, duck, pigeons, etc.

vi. Aquaculture: It is the science of fish farming.

vii. Beekeeping: It deals with the science of Beekeeping and the production of honey.

7. Agricultural Economics: The agricultural economy deals with agricultural products from a business point of view. It emphasizes on efficient utilization of scarce resources while reducing costs to maximize.

8. Agricultural biotechnology

It deals with the application of scientific techniques and tools, involving vaccines, molecular markers, genetic engineering, and tissue culture, to modify the genome of living organisms in order to develop improved organisms, for example of crops and livestock for maintaining an adequate food supply and meeting global food needs.

9. Agricultural Education and Extension:  education and leadership positions in agriculture through extension services including teaching in schools and colleges

10. Forestry:

deals with the engagement in the extensive cultivation/rearing of perennial plants for the supply of rubber, timber, etc., as well as industrial raw materials.

11. Food Science and Technology

Among the known branches of agriculture, food science and technology use a variety of approaches to study food composition, processing, packaging, and selection of existing food products.

12. Agricultural Entomology

It deals with the study of insects with special reference to agriculture. It deals with insects which are pests of agriculture commodities & their control mechanisms.

13. Agricultural engineering is the branch of agriculture that deals with agricultural machinery and equipment. It also deals with the development of new systems and practices to address the problems facing agriculture. It also deals with the use and maintenance of agricultural tools, machinery, and structures. There are 3 branches of agricultural engineering:

i. Agricultural mechanization: the use of agricultural machinery to automate agricultural work, which greatly increases the productivity of agricultural workers and production efficiency, mechanization promotes large-scale production.

 ii. Agricultural energy and machinery: deals with the use and maintenance of agricultural tools, machines, and structures are carried out.

 iii. Agricultural structures: deals with farm structures used for growing crops, raising livestock, etc.


1.National institutions

  • Universities/ colleges: Murang’a University of Technology, University of Nairobi, SEKU, JKUAT, Egerton
  • Research organisations: KALRO, Kenya Seed Company, Kenya Nut Company, etc
  • Accounting firms / Financial institutions: Banks and insurance companies, SACCOs
  • Agriculture Firms and Enterprises (Processing, agribusiness & Manufacturing) 
  • Breweries, distilleries, bottling plants, flour mills, cake makers, United Unga Millers, Brookside, Delmonte, Nestle
  • Textiles Industries: Export Processing Zone (EPZ)
  • Processing Firms (Government and Public): KCC,KMC, Brookside, UHT, KCC , Delmonte, Cadburys, Unga Limited, etc
  • Ministries of Agriculture and livestock at national and county levels

2. Regional/ Global Institutions / Organisations

  • International organisations : FAO, WFP, ILRI, ICRAF/ UNEP/UNDP/ WFP/CIMMYT,
  • Intergovernmental Organisations: IGAD, COMESA,  EAC, etc
  • Regional agricultural organisations: RUFORUM, ASARECA, FARA, etc

3. Self-employment (business, products, services)

  • Smart Farmer / Producer (Crops & Livestock)
  • Agriprenuership / Innovators – Digital solutions / apps
  • Agribusiness / Agro-dealers e.g. seed merchants, agrovets etc.
  • Pest & disease control expert – Entomologists etc.
  • Agronomist / Horticulturist, extensionist, IPM experts etc.
  • Animal nutritionist

4. Business companies

  • Loan officers in cooperatives, banks etc.
  • Insurance experts / advisors
  • Sales & Marketing Representatives in companies etc.
  • Media and communication
  • Agricultural Economists

5. Food related professions

  • Food safety experts.
  • Food technologists
  • Food processors / manufacturers
  • Value addition

6. Agricultural engineering/Machinery professions

  • Agricultural engineers
  • Equipment manufacturers
  • Mechanics
  • Equipment / machine operators
  • Building & Construction of Agric-based structures, housing etc. 

7. Academia / Research organisations

  • Research scientist
  • Breeder – plants & livestock
  • Lecturer in universities / colleges
  • Teacher – Agriculture / Biology in high schools

8. Government (National & County)

  • Agricultural Officers
  • Extension agents
  • Crop Officers

9. Industry / private sector:

(a)Seed companies

  • Kenya Seed Company
  • Simlaw Seeds Company Ltd
  • East African Seeds Company Ltd
  • Kenya Highland / Royal Seeds
  • Freshco Seeds Ltd
  • SeedCo
  • Continental Seeds Company Ltd
  • Syngenta Seed Company Ltd
  • Premier Seed Ltd
  • Amiran Seeds Company Ltd
  • Elgon Seeds Kenya Ltd

(b)Agrochemical companies

  • Green Life Crop Protection Africa
  • Twiga Chemicals
  • Osho Chemicals
  • Syngenta
  • Amiran Kenya
  • Bayer / Monsanto
  • Juanco Chemicals
  • Agrochemical & Food Company Ltd
  • Agrichem Africa Ltd
  • Murphy Chemicals East Africa Ltd


  • Del Monte East Africa Ltd
  • Unilever Kenya Ltd
  • Amiran Kenya Ltd
  • Kakuzi
  • Sasini
  • Elgon Kenya Ltd
  • Eaagads Limited
  • Ketepa
  • Brown International Limited (Formerly Finlays)
  • Kenya Nut Company

(d)Flower & Vegetable farms

  • Sian Roses
  • Suera Flowers
  • Primarosa
  • Oserian flowers
  • Fontana flowers
  • Vegpro Kenya
  • Freshco Seeds Kenya

10. Non-Government Organizations (NGOs)

  • Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA)
  • One Acre Fund
  • CIFORD Kenya
  • Farm Africa
  • SNV
  • Africa Harvest Biotech Foundation International

11. International Organizations /

  • CGIAR centers
  • International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology(ICIPE)
  • International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)

          International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)

  • Bioversity International and International Center for Tropical Agriculture

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)

  • International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)
  • World Agroforestry Centre
  • Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA)
  • United Nations Environment Programme
  • United Nations Development Programme
  • World Food Programme
  • Food and agricultural organisation

12. National Research Organizations

  • Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Reserch organization (KALRO)
  • Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service (KEPHIS)
  • Tea Research Foundation
  • Coffee Research Foundation

13. Parastatals

  • Agriculture & Food Authority (AFA)
  • National Cereals and Produce Board (NCPB)
  • Pest Control Products Board (PCPB)
  • Agriculture Development Corporation ADC


14. Professional bodies

  • Agricultural Society of Kenya.
  • Association of Kenya Feeds Manufacturers (AKEFEMA)
  • Avocado Society of Kenya
  • Cereal Growers’ Association (CGA)
  • Commercial Aquaculture Society of Kenya (CASK)
  • Seed Traders Association of Kenya (STAK)
  • Fresh Produce Exporters Association of Kenya
  • Agrochemicals Association of Kenya (AAK)